♦ Biosphere : Part of the earth which is covered by living organisms both plants and animals.
♦ Ecosystem : An integrated unit consisting of the community of living organisms and the physical environment.
♦ Flora : Plants of a particular region or period are referred to as flora.
♦ Fauna : Species of animals are known as fauna.
♦ Forest : Extensive area covered with trees.
♦ Wildlife Sanctuary : A reserved area for preserving natural beauty, e.g., wildlife.
♦ Biodiversity : It is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plants, animals and micro-organisms living on the earth.
♦ Wasteland : Land which is not fit for cultivation.
♦ Normal species : The species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
♦ Endangered species : The species which are in danger of extinction.
♦ Vulnerable species : These are some species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate.
♦ Rare species : Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate.,
♦ Endemic species : These are species which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. For example Nicobar pigeon.
♦ Extinct species : These are species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
♦ The Indian Wildlife Act : It was an act implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting natural habitats.
♦ Reserved Forests : These are the most valuable forests as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned.
♦ Protected forests : These are the forests which are protected from any further depletion.
♦ Unclassed forests : These are forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
♦ Permanent forests : Reserved and protected forests are referred as permanent forest estates maintained for the purpose of producing timber and other forest produce and for protective reasons.
♦ Chipko Movement : It was a movement launched by the people of the Himalayas against deforestation.
♦ Joint Forest Management : It was a programme launched for management and restoration of degraded forests.
NCERT solution of this chapter