Q.5. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism. [CBSE 2015 (O)]
Ans. The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because-
- It was the first time that Indian leaders decided to violate law. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.
- Thousands of Indians in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories.
- As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and ‘chaukidari taxes’, village officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forest laws – going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
- Worried by the development, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders, one by one. This led to violent clashes in many places. Angry crowd demonstrated in the streets, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
- When Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised the British rule.
- The outcome of the movement was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which was signed by Gandhiji with Irwin on 5th March, 1931. By this Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.
Q.6. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
‘Women played a very important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement.’ Explain.
- Women participated in large numbers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- During the movement, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
- They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picked foreign cloth and liquor shops.
- Many were put to jail by the police.
- Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
Q.7. Why did the political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?[CBSE2015]
Ans. By the system of separate electorates, we mean such a system when people of one religion only vote for a candidate of their own religion. Using such a system, was a mischief of the British Government who wanted to divide the people to weaken the national movement. By doing so, the British wanted to prolong their stay in India.
The different political leaders differed over the question of separate electorates because of the following reasons :
(1) The Congress leaders opposed the policy of the British Government in instigating different peoples in demanding separate electorate. They knew well that it was all the mischief of the British Government who encouraged different people to ask for separate electorates because such a policy would weaken the national movement, and prolong Britishers stay in India. The Congress leaders were one and all in favour of joint electorates.
(2) The Muslim leaders, like Muhammed Iqbal and Mr Jinnah asked for separate electorates to safeguard the political interests of the Muslims. In their opinion, the majority of the people were Hindus, and so in case of joint electorates, the Muslims would have little chance of winning the seats. As such, they would always be at the mercy of the Hindus.
(3) The leaders of the Depressed Classes, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, also asked for separate electorates because in the joint electorates, he feared the dominance of the upper electorates or the upper caste Hindus in the elections. By the Poona Pact he, however, agreed to have joint electorates with the Hindus, provided the seats for the Depressed Classes were fixed or reserved in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
Outcome: Lord Irwin announced in October 1929, a vague, offer of ‘dominion status’ for India.
1. Which of the following agreements gave seats to the depressed classes in Provincial and Central Legislative council? [AI 2012]
(a) Lucknow Pact
(b) Gandhi-irwin Pact
(c) Poona Pact
(d) None of these
2. Which one of the following Viceroys announced a vague offer of dominion status for India in October 1929? [AI 2012]
(a) Lord Mount batter
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Irwin
(d) None of these
3. Which one of the following combination of colours was there in the Swaraj flag designed by Gandhiji in 1921? [AI 2012]
(a) Red, Green and White
(b) Red, Green and Yellow
(c) Orange, White and Green
(d) Yellow, White and Green
4. In which of the following region was Dalit participa¬tion limited in the civil disobedience movement? [AI 2012]
(a) Maharashtra and Nagpur
(b) Awadh and Maharashtra
(c) Bengal and Punjab
(d) Kerala and Karnataka
5. Why were the Dalits ignored by the Congress for a longtime? [AI 2012]
(a) Fear of offending the sanatanis
(b) Fear from Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Fear from socialism
(d) Fear from industralists
6. Which of the following Acts did not permit plantation workers to leave the tea gardens without permission? [AI 2012]
(a) Indian Independence Act
(b) Inland Emigration Act of 1859
(c) Impaired Legislature Council Act
(d) Inland Immigration Act
7. In which of the following year Mahatma Gandhi inspired the peasants of Champaran district of Bihar to struggle against the oppressive plantation system ?
8. In which one of the following Indian National Congress Session, the idea of Non-Cooperation movement was accepted ?
(a) Lahore Session
(b) Nagpur Session
(c) Calcutta (Kolkata) Session
(d) Madras (Chennai) Session
9. Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ? [Delhi 2011]
(a) Gandhiji realised that people were losing interest in the movement.
(b) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places.
(c) Some Congress leaders wanted to participate in elections to Provincial Councils.
(d) Some Congress leaders wanted more radical mass agitations.
10. Which one of the following statements is false about Alluri Sitaram Raju? [Delhi 2011]
(a) He claimed he had special powers.
(b) He was inspired by the non-cooperation movement.
(c) He believed in the principle of non-violence advocated by Gandhiji.
(d) He persuaded people to give up drinking.
11. Which one of the following statements is not related to the Gandhi-irwin Pact? [AI 2011]
(a) Gandhiji agreed not to launch any further mass agitations against the British.
(b) Gandhiji agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference.
(c) Gandhiji decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(d) The British agreed to release the political prisoners.
12. Why did Nationalists in India tour villages to gather folk songs and legends ? Choose the most appropriate reason from the following : [AI 2011]
(a) Nationalists wanted to study their own culture.
(b) Nationalists wanted to publish it and earn money.
(c) Nationalists did it because it gave a true picture of traditional culture.
(d) Nationalists wanted to keep folk culture intact.
13. Who among the following wrote ‘Vande Mataram’? [Foreign 2011]
(a) Abanindranath Tagore
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(d) Natesa Shastri
14. Which of the following statements is not true about the Simon Commission? [Foreign 2011]
(a) It was appointed by Sir John Simon.
(b) It did not have any Indian member.
(c) It was opposed by all parties in India.
(d) It was set up to look into the Constitutional system in India.
15. The Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place in the city of
16. Which of the following was the reason for calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji ?
(a) His arrest
(b) The Chauri-Chaura incident
(c) Pressure from the British Government
(d) Round Table Conference
17. The resolution of Puma Swaraj was adopted at which session?
(a) Karachi Congress
(b) Haripur Congress
(c) Lahore Congress
(d) Lucknow Congress
18. The Simon Commission was boycotted because
(a) there was no Indian in the commission
(b) it supported the Muslim League
(c) Congress felt that the people deserved Swaraj
(d) there were differences among the members.
19. When did Jallianwalla Bagh incident take place ?
(a) 13th April 1919
(b) 14th April 1920
(c) 13th March 1919
(d) 15th March 1920
20. Justice Party of Madras was a party of
21. Who led a peasant movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Baba Ramchandra
(d) Sardar Patel
22. Baba Ramchandra led a Peasant Movement in Avadh against the
(a) British government
(b) the ruler of Avadh
(c) the Talukdars
(d) the moneylenders
23. By whom was the Swaraj Party formed?
(a) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das
(b) Subhas Chandra Bose and Sardar Patel
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad
(d) Motilal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad
24. With which main demand did the Civil Disobedience Movement start ?
(a) Abolition of Untouchability
(b) Abolition of Dowry
(c) Abolition of Salt Law
(d) None of the above
25. At which of the following places did Gandhiji make salt out of sea water to defy the salt law ?
26. Who among the following led the Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar ?
(a) Lala Lajpat Rai
(b) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(c) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
27. By what name were the dalits referred by Gandhiji ?
28. When was the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries set up ?
29. Why was Alluri Sitaram Raju well known ?
(a) He led the militant movement of tribal peasants in Andhra Pradesh
(b) He led a peasant movement in Avadh
(c) He led a satyagraha movement in Bardoli
(d) He set up an organisation for the uplifment of the dalits.
30. Who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 ?
(a) Sitaram Raju
(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Sardar Patel
31. By whom was the song ‘Vande Mataram’ written ?
(a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Sarat Chandra
(d) Natesa Sastri
32. Which of the following was the most important feature of Satyagraha Movement advocated by Gandhiji ?
(a) Abolition of untouchability
(b) Social equality
(c) Truth and non-violence
(d) Basic education
33. Why did Gandhiji organise Satyagraha in 1917 in Kheda district of Gujarat ?
(a) To support the plantation workers.
(b) To protest against high revenue demand.
(c) To support the mill workers to fulfil their demand.
(d) To demand loans for the farmers.
34. Gandhiji organised Satyagraha against Rowlatt Act in 1919 because
(a) the Act was unjust, which denied the civil rights to Indians.
(b) the Act was passed by the British.
(c) the Act discriminated against the Muslims.
(d) the Act denied educational rights to Indians.
35. Why was Satyagraha organised in Champaran in 1916 ?
(a) To oppose the British laws.
(b) To oppose the plantation system.
(c) To oppose high land revenue.
(d) To protest against the oppression of the mill workers.
36. Why did the Indians oppose the Rowlatt Act ?
(a) It introduced the Salt Law.
(b) It increased taxes on land.
(c) It gave the British the power to arrest and detain a person without a trial.
(d) It put a ban on the Congress party.
37. Why did Gandhiji organise a Satyagraha in Ahmedabad Mill in 1918 ?
(a) To protest against the poor working conditions in the factory.
(b) To demand for higher wages for workers.
(c) To protest against high revenue demand.
(d) None of the above.
38. Who among the following two leaders led the Khilafat Movement ?
(a) Shaukat Ali and Muhammad AM
(b) Gandhiji and Sardar Patel
(c) Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Abul Kalam Azad
(d) Abul Kalam Azad and Jawaharlal Nehru
39. What is meant by begar ?
(b) Forced labour without payment
(d) Working for nominal payment
40. ‘Hind Swaraj’ was written by
(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Sardar Patel
(d) Subhas Chandra Bose
41. What does the term Khalifa refer ?
(a) Sultan of a Muslim country
(b) Spiritual leader of the Muslims
(c) Nawab of a Muslim state
(d) Badshah of Mughal period
42. Mark the correct response
Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 the peasants were not permitted to
(a) leave their village
(b) settle in the city
(c) leave their plantation without permission
(d) allow the women to leave farmlands without permission
43. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
(a) The leaders failed to organise the movement well
(b) People lacked courage
(c) The movement turned violent
(d) The movement was not widespread enough to continue
44. Why was the Simon Commission sent to India ?
(a) To look into the Indian constitutional matter and suggest reform
(b) To choose members of Indian Council
(c) To settle disputes between the government and the Congress leaders
(d) To set up a government organisation
45. Why was the Round Table Conference held in England ?
(a) To discuss the provisions of future Indian Constitution.
(b) To discuss the steps to be taken to check Indian National Movement.
(c) To give concessions to Indians
(d) To make plans for improvement of agriculture in India.
46. By whom was the first image of Bharatmata painted ?
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Abanindranath Tagore
(c) Ravi Verma .
(d) Nandalal Bose
47. During which of the following movements did the women participate in large numbers for the first time ?
(a) Swadeshi and Boycott Movement
(b) Non-Cooperation Movement
(c) Civil Disobedience Movement
(d) Quit India Movement
48. What kind of movement was launched by the tribal peasants of Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh ?
(a) Satyagraha Movement
(b) Militant Guerrilla Movement
(c) Non-Violent Movement
(d) None of the above.
49. Which of the following is the most important factor for the growth of nationalism in India ?
(a) British administrative reforms.
(b) Introduction of railways.
(c) Social reforms.
(d) Colonial exploitation under the British rule.
50. Why did General Dyer open fire on peaceful crowd in Jallianwalla Bagh?
Mark the most important factor
(a) To punish the Indians.
(b) To take revenge for breaking martial laws.
(c) To create a feeling of terror and awe in the mind of Indians.
(d) To disperse the crowd.