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Class 10 Biology Chapter 16 Notes PDF

 Management Of Natural Resource

Anything in the environment which can be used is called a natural resource.

Natural Resources includes total natural environment that support human life and contribute to the production of necessities and comforts to mankind. So natural resources are the coihponents of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.

Types of Natural Resources: On the basis of abundance and availability, the natural resources are of two types

  • Inexhaustible.
  • Exhaustible.

(a) Inexhaustible: These are in plenty and cannot be exhausted by man’s consumption. For example; air, sand, clay etc. It gets affected by the over-population of mankind.
(b) Exhaustible: These are limited and can get exhausted over a period of time, i.e., coal, petroleum etc.

Management of Natural Resources: A system of controlling the use of natural resources in such a way, as to avoid their wastage and to use them in the most effective way is called management of natural resources.

Why do we Need to Manage Our Natural Resources: We need to manage our natural resources because of the following reasons :

  • The resources of the earth are limited. Because of the rapid increase in human population,
    the demand for resources is increasing day-by-day. The proper management can ensure that the natural resources are used judiciously, so that they fulfill the needs of present generation and also last for the generations to come. –
  • The proper management of natural resources takes into consideration long-term perspective (or view) and prevents their exploitation to hilt for short-term gains.
  • The proper management can ensure equitable distribution of natural resources so that all the people can benefit from the development of these resources.
  • The proper management will take into consideration the damage caused to the environment during the ‘extraction’ or ‘use’ of the natural resources and find ways and means to minimise this damage.

Conservation of Wildlife: It is very important to conserve wild-life to maintain the ecological balance in nature and to preserve the gene pool. Some of the measures (or steps) to be taken for the conservation of wildlife are given below:

  • Laws should be made to impose a total ban on the poaching (killing) or capturing of any animal or bird belonging to an endangered species.
  • The natural habitats of wild animals and birds should be preserved by establishing National Parks and Sanctuaries throughout the country.
  • The Government Department connected with the conservation of wildlife should conduct a periodic survey in all the forests, National parks and Sanctuaries to have knowledge of the population of all species of wild animals and birds.
  • Special attention should be paid to the conservation of endangered species of wild animals and birds to prevent their extinction altogether.
  • The unauthorized felling (cutting) of forest trees for timber trade and fuel-wood should be curbed (stopped) immediately.

Forest and wild life conservation: Forests are biodiversity hot spots. Biodiversity of an area is the number of species of different life forms like bacteria, fungi, powering plants insects, birds, etc.
Hotspot means an area full of biological diversity.
loss of diversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability/ecological imbalance.
Stake holders: A person having interest or concern for something is called as a stakeholder.
Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 16 1

Sustainable Management: Management of forest resources wisely to make it available for future generations.
To consider the conservation of forests, we need to look at the stakeholders who are :

  • The people who live in or around forests are dependent on forest products for various aspects of their life.
  • The Forest Department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  • The industrialists—from those who use ‘tendu’ leaves to make bidis to the ones with papermills who use various forest produce.
  • The wild life and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.
    A major program called silviculture has been started to replenish the forests by growing more trees and plants.

Conservation of forests: It is carried out by the following methods

  • Afforestation: It is growing of forests on unprotected barren lands. Van Mahotsava is a tree plantation movement carried out twice a year (February and July) by both government and voluntary agencies.
  • Reforestation: It is developing forest cover in the area which has been damaged or cleared during exploitation.
  • Separation of Commercial Forestry: Useful plants required by industry should be planted separately preferably on waste land. Growing industry required plants is called production plantation.
  • Grazing: Grazing should be regulated according to the availability of pasturage.
    Deforestation: Removal, decreases or deterioration of forest cover of an area is called deforestation.

Effects of Deforestation

  • Soil Erosion: Removal of plant cover exposes the fertile soil to wind and water. The latter remove the top soil and make the area infertile.
  • Desertification: Removal of forest cover in the plains makes the area dry. In hot season, the soil becomes loose. Air currents take away the fine soil particles leaving behind sand.
  • Floods: In rainy season many temporary rivulets are formed due to loss of absorption capacity by unprotected soil. The rivulets produce floods in low land causing loss to agriculture, property and life.
  • Destruction of wildlife: Deforestation leads to destruction of natural habitats of wild animals and plants. Wildlife is, therefore, destroyed.
  • Climatic Changes: In the absence of forest cover, the summer becomes hotter while the winters become extra cool. The frequency of rainfall decreases.

National Award for Wildlife Conservation: The Govt, of India, has recently instituted an ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for wildlife conservation in the memory of Amrita Devi, who in 1931 sacrificed her life along with 363 other for the protection ‘Khejri Trees’ in Kherali Village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

Chipko Andolan: Movement originated in Garhwal in early 1970’s that was the result of a grassroot level effort to end the alienation of people from their forest.
Thus, Chipko Movement (i.e., chipko Andolan) is the tree hugging movement, in which the villagers compel the axeman to stop tree felling by embracing and forming ring (circle) around the marked trees. Example : Protection of Sal Forest in West Bengal in 1972.
Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 16 2
Re-use is better than recycling as it saves energy.

Water as a Resource

  • Water is a basic necessity for all terrestrial forms of life. Regions of water scarcity are closely
    related to the regions of acute poverty.
  • Failure to sustain water availability has resulted in loss of vegetation cover, diversion for high water demanding crops and pollution from industries and, urban wastes and less rain.
  • Irrigation methods like dams, tanks should be used in various part of India.

Advantages of Dams

  • Water from a dam is used for irrigation in fields through a network of canals. Dams ensure round the year water supply to the crop fields and help raise agricultural production.
  • Water from a dam is supplied to the people in towns and cities through pipelines after suitable treatment. In this way, construction of dams ensures continuous water supply in the region.
  • The falling water (or flowing water) from the dam is used for generating electricity. The water rushing down the dam turns turbines which run electric generators.

Disadvantages of Dams

  • Social Problems: Due to the construction of high-rise dams, a large number of human settlements (or villages) are submerged in the water of large reservoir formed by the dam and many people are rendered homeless. This creates a social problem.
  • Environmental Problems: The construction of high-rise dams on the rivers contributes to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. This is because a vast variety of flora and fauna (plants and animals) get submerged in the water of large reservoir formed by the dam and disturb the ecological balance.
  • Economic Problems: Some people say that the construction of high-rise dams involves the spending of a huge amount of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.

Forests: Forests are important renewable natural resources dominated mainly by trees forming a sort of canopy, they are essential for the ecological balance of all ecosystems. They maintain the biological ecosystem.

Water Harvesting: Aim is to develop primary resources of land and water and to produce secondary resources of plants and animals for use in a manner which will not cause ecological imbalance.
Various ancient methods of water harvesting

Methods State
Khadin, tanks, nadis Rajasthan
Banderas, tals Maharashtra
Bundhis Madhya Pradesh and U.P.
Pyhes and Pynes Bihar
Kulhs Himachal Pradesh
Ponds Jammu Region
Eris (tanks) Tamilnadu

Baylis Old method of water harvesting in Delhi and nearby region.
These techniques are local specific to ensure the mismanagement and over-exploitation of these resources.

Advantages of Water Harvesting System

  • Water does not evaporate.
  • Recharge wells and moisture for vegetation.
  • Does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
  • Ground water is protected from contamination by human and animal waste.

Pollution of Water: The pollution of water is caused by the dumping of untreated sewage and industrial wastes into it.
The contamination of river water can be usually found from two factors :

  • the presence of coliform bacteria in river water, and
  • measurement of pH of river water.

Gangs Action Plan (GAP): Muticrore project came in 1985 to improve the quality of Ganga. Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was formulated to reduce the pollution load of river Ganga by more than 75%. The water quality has been tested from time-to-time by checking coliform (a group of harmless bacteria in human intestine) number/100 ml.
Accordingly, a survey was conducted and data was collected for total coliform (a group of bacteria found in human intestine) between 1993-1994 which was as below:
Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 16 3
MPN – Most Probable Number.

Advantages of Water Stored in the Ground

  • The water stored in the ground does not evaporate.
  • The water stored in the ground spreads out to recharge wells and provides moisture for crops over a wide area.
  • The water stored in the ground does not promote the breeding of mosquitoes (unlike stagnant water collected in ponds or artificial lakes).
  • The water stored in the ground is protected from contamination by human and animal waste.

Coal and Petroleum Conservation: Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels found in earth’s
crust. They are non-renewable and exhaustible resources.
1. Coal: Coal is combustible fossilized rock derived from a large accumulation of plant remains that is gradually compressed. Coal is used for cooking, heating, in industry and thermal power plants.
2. Petroleum: Petroleum is another fossil fuel that occurs in the form of liquid oil. It has been formed in the past (about 10 to 20 crore years old) from plant and animal remains and occur in the form of mineral oil in sedimentaiy rocks. Petroleum is mainly used as fuel for transport, agricultural operations, generators and some industries.

Methods of Conservation of Fossil Fuels

  • Burning of coal causes air pollution. Thus direct use of coal for the purpose or burning should be avoided. Coal may be converted into liquid fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG) through coal gasification.
  • Techniques should be developed to recover maximum fossil fuel that lies in deep mines and wells. Wastage during extraction and transportation should be avoided.
  • Both oil wells and coal mines are prone to catch fire. Therefore, these should be well protected from fire to avoid wastage pollution and loss of life and property.
  • Over-consumption of oil in automobiles should be checked. We must save oil for future use because only a few years are left for its depletion.
  • Alternative sources of energy, such as hydroelectric, nuclear, solar, wind power and biogas plants should be encouraged.

Steps for Conservation of Energy Resources

  • Save electricity, water, etc. by not using when not required.
  • Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity.
  • Use pressure cooker for cooking food.
  • Use solar cookers.
  • Encourage the use of biogas as domestic fuel.
  • Fuel efficient motor vehicle should be designed to reduce consumption of petrol and diesel.

Management of natural resources is needed for the conservation of natural resources.

  • There are national and international laws and Acts to protect the environment.
  • Ganga Action Plan. Multi Crore Project came in 1985 to improve the quality of Ganga — Accordingly a survey was conducted and a data was collected of total coliform (a group of bacteria found in human intestine) between 1993-1994 National Award for wildlife conservation – In the memory Amrita Devi Bishnoi who lost her life in the protection of Khejri trees in Rajasthan along with 363 other people.

Chipko Movement: Chipko Movement is an example of the contribution of common people towards the conservation of forests. The Chipko Movement also called ‘Hug the tree’ movement originated from an incident in a remote village called ‘Reni’ in Garhwal (Himalayas), where the people of this village clasped the tree trunks with their arms to protect them from being cut down by a contractor’s workers. The people acted this way because they knew that this mass deforestation would spoil their healthy environment. The forest trees were thus saved.

The Chipko Movement quickly spread across all the communities and helped in the conservation of forests and thus helped in safeguarding the environment.

Three R’s to save the environment.

  • Reduce: It means we should minimise our use of natural resources, sources of energy and food materials.
  • Recycle: It means that we should collect materials like paper, plastics, glass and metal items. These waste materials should be recycled to obtain these materials again for use.
  • Reuse: In this strategy, we should be encouraged to use things again and again instead of throwing them away. For example, plastic bottles those we get with jams and pickle can be reused for storing things in the kitchen.

Forest and wildlife conservation: Forests are biodiversity hot spots. Biodiversity of an area is the number of species of different life forms like bacteria, fungi, powering plants insects, birds etc. The main aim of forest conservation is to preserve the biodiversity we have inherited.

Stakeholders: Those persons, who are directly or indirectly involved in using the produce of forests or are interested in the conservation of forests, are called stakeholders.

Hotspot: means an area full of biological diversity. Loss of diversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability/ecological imbalance.

Sustainable management: Management of forest resources wisely to make it available for future generations. Sustainable development is development encourages the judicious use of natural resources to meet the current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generations.

Water as a Resource: Water is a basic necessity for all terrestrial forms of life.

  • Regions of water scarcity are closely correlated to the regions of acute poverty.
  • Failure to sustain water availability has resulted in the loss of vegetation cover, diversion for high water demanding crops and pollution from industries and urban wastes and less rain.
  • Irrigation methods like dams, tanks and coals have been used in various part of India.

Dams: In order to make proper use of river water, dams are constructed across the rivers to regulate the flow of water. A dam has a large reservoir to store huge amounts of water. This stored water is then allowed to flow downstream at the desired rate.


Advantages.

  • Water from a dam is used for irrigation in fields through a network of canals. Dams ensure round the year water supply to the crop fields and help raise agricultural production.
  • The water rushing down the dam turns turbines which run electric generators to generate electricity.

Disadvantages.
Construction of large dams addresses three problems in particular-

  • Social problem. A large number of local people have to be displaced which includes farmers and tribals without their adequate compensation or rehabilitation.
  • Economic problem. As dams are built up with huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.
  • Environmental problem. Because the making of large dams contributes enormously to deforestation and the loss of biological diversity.

Water Harvesting: Collecting rainwater for use in future by storing it in storage reservoirs is called rainwater harvesting.
Various ancient methods of water harvesting. These techniques are locale specific to ensure the mismanagement and over-exploitation of these resources.
Advantages of Khadin System

  • Water does not evaporate
  • Recharge wells and moisture for vegetation.
  • Does not provide a breeding ground for mosquito
  • Groundwater is protected from human and animal waste.

Green House Effect: When the reflected back infra-red rays (of longer wave-length) of the Sun are entrapped by C02 gas of atmosphere, the atmosphere gets warmed. This phenomenon is known as ‘Green House Effect’.

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