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class 12 geography ncert solutions chapter 1

Human Geography Nature And Scope

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

Question 1

i) Which one of the following statements does not describe geography?
(a) an integrative discipline
(b) study of the inter-relationship between humans and environment
(c) subjected to dualism
(d) not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology
Answer:
(d) not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology

(ii) Which one of the following is not a source of geographical information?
(a) traveller’s accounts
(b) old maps
(c) samples of rock materials from the moon
(d) ancient epics
Answer:
(c) samples of rock materials from the moon

(iii) Which one of the following is the most important factor in the interaction between people and environment?
(a) human intelligence
(b) people’s perception
(c) technology
(d) human brotherhood
Answer:
(c) technology

(iv) Which one of the following is not an approach in human geography?
(a) Areal differentiation
(b) Spatial organisation
(c) Quantitative revolution
(d) Exploration and description
Answer:
(c) Quantitative revolution

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

(i) Define human geography.
Answer:
Human geography is defined as “the relationship between the physical/ natural and the human worlds, the spatial distribution of human phenomenon and how they come about, the social and economic difference between different parts of the world.” According to Ratzel “ Human geography is the synthetic study of relationship between human societies and earth’s surface”.
According to Ellen C. Semple “Human geography is the study of the changing relationships between the unresting man and unstable earth”

According to Paul Vidal de la Blache “Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing our earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhabit it.”

(ii) Name some sub-fields of human geography.
Answer:
Some sub-fields of human geography are:

Behavioral geography, Geography of social well-being, Geography of leisure, Cultured geography, Gender geography, Historical geography, Medical geography, Electoral geography, Military geography, Geography of Resources, Geography of agriculture, Geography of industries, Geography of Marketing, Geography of Tourism and Geography of international trade.

(iii) How is human geography related to other social sciences?
Answer:
Human geography attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and the space they occur over. Thus, human geography assumes a highly interdisciplinary nature. It develops close interface with sister disciplines in social sciences in order to understand and explain human elements on the surface of the earth. With the expansion of knowledge, new sub-fields emerge and it has further expanded realm of human geography.
Example; Within social geography there are following sub fields with the interface with sister disciplines of social sciences:
Behavioural geography-Psychology
Geography of social well-being- Welfare Economics
Geography of Leisure-Sociology
Cultural Geography-Anthropology
Gender Geography-Sociology, Anthropology, Women’s Studies Historical Geography-History Medical Geography-Epidemology

3. Answer the following questions in 150 words:

(i) Explain naturalization of humans.
Answer:
Human beings interact with their physical environment with help of technology. It is not important what human beings produce and create but it is extremely important with the help of what tools and techniques do they produce and create. Technology indicates the level of social and cultural development of society.

In the early stages of their interaction with environment, human beings interacted with environment with help of primitive technology, hence nature played a dominant role over humans. Human beings were greatly influenced by nature and adapted to dictates of the nature. This type of interaction when, human society was at primitive stage of development and hence adapted itself as per the nature, is called naturalization of humans also known as environmental determinism. This is a stage of naturalized humans, who listen to nature, are afraid of nature’s fury and worship it. All the actions of human beings are guided by the nature, especially by climate, wild animals and availability of water and edible plants. At this stage due to lack of technological advancement and understanding of nature, human beings are not able to loosen the shackles of nature and hence follow it and all their actions are guided by nature. This type of interaction can still be seen in tribal societies where tribal lives’ revolve around nature and their daily routine is well knit with the natural processes.

Example; Tribals depend on the edible plants and their parts they get from nature, some of the hunter tribes hunt wild animals with help of primitive tools. They use medicines out of natural plants available. Their religious practices involve worshiping trees, forces of nature, wild groves etc.


(ii) Write a note on the scope of human geography.
Answer:
Geography as a field of study is integrative, empirical, and practical. Thus, the reach of geography is extensive and each and every phenomenon that varies over space and time can be studied geographically.

Human geography is defined as “the relationship between the physical/ natural and the human worlds, the spatial distribution of human phenomenon and how they come about, the social and economic difference between different parts of the world.” The core concern of geography as a discipline is to understand the earth as home of human beings and to study all those elements that have sustained them. Human geography covers a very wide range of fields. It not only studies presence of human phenomenon but also relationship of human and physical world, the pattern and distribution of human processes including both social and economical.

 

 

 

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