Class 12 Biology CH 9 Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production

Class 12 Biology CH 9 Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production

1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Ans – 

  • Animal husbandry deals with caring for, feeding, and managing domesticated animals.
  • These animals are beneficial for human beings because
    (i) they provide products that are used as food like meat, milk, eggs, honey, etc.
    (ii) Some other substances obtained from animals are beneficial to human beings like wool, silk, leather, beeswax, etc.
2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

Ans: To improve the quality & quantity of milk production, one should take care of the following points:
(i) Proper feeding of the cattle with good quality food.
(ii) Clean and hygienic environment for cattle.
(iii) Proper medication.
(iv) Veterinary supervision.
(v) Selection of good breeds having high yielding capacity combined with resistance to disease.
(vi) Quality of breed.

3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Ans- Animal breeding can be classified into two types:

  • Natural Methods of Breeding
  • Artificial Methods of Breeding

Natural Methods of Breeding Involves:

  • Outcrossing
  • Cross-breeding
  • Inter-specific hybridization

Artificial Methods of Breeding Involves:

  • Artificial Insemination
  • MOET (multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology)

From a commercial perspective, MOET is considered the best method of breeding as it overcomes the hurdles of natural breeding while ensuring high success rates for crossing between male and female animals. It is also more economically viable than the other mentioned techniques.

4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?

Ans: Methods employed in animal breeding are
(i) Inbreeding
(ii) Out-breeding
(iii) Cross-breeding
(iv) Interspecific hybridization
(v) Artificial insemination
(vi) Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Cross breeding is the best method as it results in the development of superior traits of both breeds and the progeny produced are fertile and there is no inbreeding depression

5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Ans: Apiculture is the rearing and breeding of honeybees for the production of honey.
It is important in our lives as honeybees provide honey, which is a highly nutritive substance, and beeswax is used in many industries. Honeybees also pollinate flowers of some very important plants like sunflowers, apples, peas

6. Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.

Ans- Fisheries is defined as a coordinated effort to capture or rear fish through fishing farms and aquaculture. However, fisheries are not just limited to fish; for instance, oysters are selectively bred for pearls, shells and tissues.Fisheries play a significant role in food production, especially in India. From a dietary perspective, fish is an affordable source of animal protein. From a commercial perspective, fisheries provide employment opportunities for residents in coastal areas.

7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Ans-  Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used for improving the nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:

  • Accumulation of genetic variability
  • Germplasm evaluation & parent selection
  • Cross hybridization of selected parents
  • Choosing superior hybrids
  • Testing the viability of new cultivars
8. Explain what biofortification is?

Ans: Enhancement of the nutritional quality of a crop by improving the content and quality of protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients is called biofortification. It helps to improve public health.

9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Ans- virus-free plants can be made if the axillary and apical meristem are used. These regions are used as they are unaffected by the virus when compared to the rest of the plant. Scientists have used this method to develop virus-free plants of sugarcane, banana, potato, etc.

10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?

Ans: It is a faster method of producing a large number of plants. Plants formed by micro propagation are identical.

11. Find out the various components of the medium 12. used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?

Ans: The various components of the medium used for the propagation of an explant in vitro are
-Sucrose (source of energy & carbon)
-Inorganic salts
-Growth regulators (auxins and cytokinins)

12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants that have been developed in India.

Ans: Sonalika (wheat)
Himgiri (wheat)
Pusa Swami (mustard)
PusaSem2 (bean)
Pusa Sawani (lady’s finger)

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